Antimicrobial resistance is a cross-border problem at the global level, affecting both developed and developing nations. However, the mandate for enforcing international measure is limited. Increasing numbers of bacteria species are developing resistance to the antibiotic. This means that some infections are difficult, sometimes even impossible to treat. Thus, treatment and operation that are now common may entail a significant additional health risk in the future. Despite the fact that the problem is largely invisible; antibiotics resistance represents a global threat to public health. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria do not respect international borders. Therefore international cooperation is a priority when dealing with antibiotic resistance. A great deal remains to be done in order to manage this threat to the world economy, including in the Africa regions. The approach to antibiotic resistance that is proposed in this project will address all domain where human health is threatened by antibiotic-resistance bacteria such as healthcare, animals, food, water and environment. This is referred to as the integrated approach based on a public health perspective as the One Health approach. Specific measures will be taken in each domain. Particular attention is required for innovation and international activities. This project will produce vital but currently missing knowledge about the mechanisms by which ecological and socio-economic factors impact the fate of antibiotic resistance traits.