Most publications by philosophers, scientists and other scholars from Africa and the Third World have so far been intended for an external audience and particularly a Western audience. This intellectual and cultural extraversion is only a consequence of economic extraversion, i.e. the subordination of the whole production process to an external demand. The question therefore is how far the methods and devices proposed by development economists to overcome underdevelopment are applicable to the field of intellectual and scholarly production. This research is an exploration into the nature and challenges of intellectual activity in Africa and the Third World.