Many populations of wild organisms exist as scattered populations spread across landscapes. These populations may respond differently to changing conditions (such as climate change) or may be growing or declining in the process of biological invasion, or extinction, or increasing as crop pests. Few studies have examined how population growth or decline varies across landscapes, and how population change is correlated at different spatial scales. In this project demographic models to address this important problem will be developed. One approach will be to examine population spread where different local conditions cause each local population to grow at very different rates. Models will also be developed that specifically focus on the growth and spread of invasive species in fynbos, including the role of wildfires. In addition, we will be working on the third edition of a university textbook, The Ecology of Plants, and plan to greatly increase the coverage of plant ecology in Africa.