Metal bioavailability-based approaches are used to predict the bioavailability of metals in surface waters and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Over the years, several bioavailability-based models have been developed, from simple empirical models to more complex mechanistic ones such as the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Several developed countries have adopted metal bioavailability-based approaches in regulatory frameworks for setting water quality criteria targeted at protecting aquatic life. However, the development and application of metal bioavailability-based models in African countries is extremely limited or non-existent. In this project, I aim to use a non-experimental approach to highlight the advantages of bioavailability-based models and evidence of reduced metal pollution in countries that have adopted these models. I also aim to identify factors that could be hindering the application of these models in African countries and emphasise the need to bridge the gap through innovative research and collaboration. Outputs from the project will provide a wealth of information that will be vital to the development and application of metal bioavailability-based models in African countries and other regions of the world. These will guarantee the adequate protection of aquatic life and sustainable use of resources which benefits present and future generations.