This project aim to study mechanisms underlying the very high occurrence of type 2 diabetes in black South African Women. This can be possible via collected blood samples from a unique cohort of women that were caregivers to the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, originally recruited in Soweto-Johannesburg 1990. In addition, we have performed an exercise training program among obese black South African Women. The blood samples in the first study sample will be analyzed with advanced biochemical methods – metabolomics and lipidomics – in order to find specific markers in the blood for increased diabetes risk. In the second study part we have done extensive analyses of body composition including measures of fat within different organs, analyses of the body sensitivity to insulin and also collected samples from fat and muscle before and after training. We hope to find important determinants of type 2 diabetes via analyses of the effects of exercise training in this high-risk group for later development of diabetes.