Complexity is possibly the most relevant scientific idea that emerged during the past decades. A question we would like to raise is whether complexity unfolds in degrees (when systems or models are more or less complex), or whether it is is a type (when a system or a model is either simple or complex). Things become even more interesting when one considers systems including models of themselves and their environment. In so doing, the system can ‘foresee’ its future and may take decisions in the present moment according to the model’s previsions.
The following are some of the questions we would like to discuss: What is anticipation? Are there different kinds of anticipation? Which acceptance of complexity is most suitable for making anticipation possible? Are there hierarchies of anticipation? How do anticipations relate to emergence? How can anticipation be modeled?